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Investigating the effects of E. longifolia on the proliferation, differentiation and maturation of osteoclasts

Malaysian researchers investigated the effect of Eurycoma longifolia, also known as longjack, on the proliferation, differentiation and maturation of osteoclasts and the translational mechanism of inhibition of osteoclastogenesis using RAW 264.7 cells. Their findings were published in the Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine.

  • E. longifolia has gained remarkable recognition due to its efficacy in stimulating bone formation in androgen-deficient osteoporosis.
  • Despite numerous studies on its effects on osteoporosis, E. longifolia‘s mechanism of action in vitro has not yet been elucidated.
  • To address this, the researchers evaluated the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity of E. longifolia in receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB) ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclasts.
  • They also measured the time-mannered expression of osteoclast-related protein biomarkers to understand the mechanism underlying osteoclastogenesis.
  • The protein biomarkers included matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP-9), cathepsin-K, TRAP, nuclear factor of activated T-cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), superoxide (free radicals) generation and superoxide dismutase activity.
  • The researchers found that E. longifolia is not cytotoxic to RAW 264.7 cells and did not affect cell proliferation.
  • However, it significantly inhibited the differentiation and maturation of osteoclasts.
  • E. longifolia also significantly down-regulated RANKL-induced TRAP activity; the expression of MMP-9, cathepsin-K, TRAP and NFATc1; and the generation of superoxide.
  • On the other hand, E. longifolia enhanced superoxide dismutase activity in treated cells.

Based on these results, the researchers concluded that E. longifolia can improve bone regeneration but suppress osteoclast maturation. These activities are invaluable in treating osteoporosis and other bone-erosive diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and metastasis associated with bone loss.

Read the full study at this link.

Journal Reference:

Thu HE, Hussain Z, Mohamed IN, Shuid AN. EURYCOMA LONGIFOLIA, A PROMISING SUPPRESSOR OF RANKL-INDUCED DIFFERENTIATION AND ACTIVATION OF OSTEOCLASTS: AN IN VITRO MECHANISTIC EVALUATION. Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine. 2019;10(2):102–110. DOI: 10.1016/j.jaim.2017.07.014

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