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Scientists study the in vivo antiplasmodial activity of J. gossypiifolia in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice

In this study, researchers at Nnamdi Azikiwe University in Nigeria evaluated the in vivo antiplasmodial activity of the ethanol leaf extract and fractions obtained from Jatropha gossypiifolia (bellyache bush) using Plasmodium berghei-infected mice. Their results were published in the Journal of Medicinal Plants Research.

  • The researchers analyzed the phytochemical composition, physicochemical properties and median lethal dose (LD50) of J. gossypiifolia leaf extract.
  • Using 50 P. berghei-infected mice, they also evaluated the antimalarial prophylactic and curative activities of J. gossypiifolia ethanol leaf extracts and fractions.
  • Phytochemical analysis revealed that the leaves contain tannins, saponins, phlobatannins, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids and cardiac glycosides.
  • They also contain the following extractive values: 6.3 percent total ash, 3.8 percent acid insoluble ash, 2.5 percent water-soluble ash, 4.5 percent ethanol and seven percent moisture.
  • The researchers reported that the extract’s LD50 was 4,472.14 mg/kg.
  • On the 28th day of treatment, the extract (500 mg/kg) caused significant increases in alanine transaminase (ALT), alanine phosphatase (ALP) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), indicating that it causes liver injury only with prolonged administration at high doses.
  • The crude J. gossypiifolia extract (50 to 200 mg/kg) exhibited moderate prophylactic and significant curative activities on days 4 and 7, with infected mice having a mean survival time comparable to that of mice treated with the standard drug, quinine, at 100 mg/kg.
  • J. gossypiifolia leaf extracts and fractions also exhibited moderate to good prophylactic and curative activities, with the ethyl acetate fraction giving the best results.

Based on these findings, the researchers concluded that J. gossypiifolia leaf extracts and fractions have good antiplasmodial activity and are safe to use as natural antimalarial medicine.

Journal Reference:

Onyegbule FA, Bruce SO, Onyekwe ON, Onyealisi OL, Okoye PC. EVALUATION OF THE IN VIVO ANTIPLASMODIAL ACTIVITY OF ETHANOL LEAF EXTRACT AND FRACTIONS OF JATROPHA GOSSYPIFOLIA IN PLASMODIUM BERGHEI INFECTED MICE. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 10 June 2019;13(11):269–279. DOI: 10.5897/jmpr2019.6766

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